Thursday, March 5, 2020

Organization Questions on SAT Writing Tips and Tricks

Organization Questions on SAT Writing Tips and Tricks SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The SAT Writing and Language section tests you on where to place sentences within a paragraph and where to place paragraphs within a passage. You may not know exactly how to approach these questions if you've never encountered these types of questions on other tests. Fortunately, organization questions aren't overly difficult if you know how to recognize and approach them. In this article, I'll do the following: Explain the different types of organization questions on SAT Writing Provide a step-by-step approach to answering each type of organization questions Offer tips to help you answer organization questions on the SAT. Organization Questions on SAT Writing Organization questions ask where a sentence or paragraph should be placed within a passage. To correctly answer organization questions, you must understand the passage to ensure that each sentence and paragraph is logically connected. Generally, there are about 2-3 organization questions on SAT Writing. How to Identify an Organization Question Being able to identify an organization question will help you figure it out efficiently. Luckily, organization questions are easy to spot. Bracketed numbers in front of the sentences in a paragraph signal an impending sentence order question: Similarly, numbers at the top of each paragraph signal a paragraph order question: If you see numbered sentences or paragraphs in a passage, you know that an organization question is coming. Cupcakes and organization questions come in different types.(Hungry Dudes/Flickr) The 2 Types of Organization Questions Here’s how most organization questions will be phrased. Type 1: Sentence Order Questions Most sentence order questions will look like this: Or you might see a question that looks like this: For both types of questions, you have to determine where the sentence should be placed within the passage. Type 2: Paragraph Order Questions This what paragraph order questions look like: Like sentence order questions, paragraph order questions are pretty straightforward. You just have to select where a paragraph should be placed to make the passage most logical. Step-By-Step Approach to Answering Sentence Order Questions I’ll go through the step-by-step process for how to answer a sentence order question. Take a look at this question from a passage about video game designers: #1: Determine What the Question is Asking Read these questions carefully so you know what to look for and how to go about answering the question. In this question, we have to determine where sentence 5 logically fits in the paragraph. #2: Go Through the Answer Choices Go through the answer choices to determine the best placement for the sentence. Let’s look at our options: A. Courses in psychology and human behavior help you develop emphatic collaboration skills, while courses in the humanities, such as in literature and film, should give you the background necessary to develop effective narrative structures. A designer also needs careful educational preparation. B. A designer also needs careful educational preparation. A basic understanding of computer programming is essential. C. Consider taking some general computer science courses as well as courses in artificial intelligence and graphics in order to increase your understanding of the technical challenges involved in developing a video game. A designer also needs careful educational preparation. D. DELETED from the paragraph If you need more information to determine if a sentence logically fits in the paragraph, you can skim the paragraph plugging in each answer choice. #3: Eliminate Wrong Choices The right choice should logically follow the sentence before and connect to the following sentence. Answer choice A doesn’t work. The sentence before discusses specific educational preparation a designer needs. Then, the following sentence says that a designer also needs educational preparation. That doesn’t make much logical sense. Similarly, in answer choice C, the first sentence mentions specific courses a designer should take, and the following sentence states that a designer also needs careful educational preparation. Therefore, we can eliminate choices A and C. #4: Review the Paragraph With Your Remaining Choices to Determine What’s Most Logical In answer choice B, the paragraph starts with the sentence that a designer also needs careful educational preparation. The rest of the paragraph is about the education that a designer needs to be successful. That sentence is a good introduction for the paragraph, and the rest of the paragraph makes logical sense. In answer choice D, the paragraph starts by claiming that a basic understanding of computer science is essential, but the paragraph is about all the different types of courses that a designer needs. Answer choice B would give the paragraph the best introduction and make it most logical. The correct answer is B. Step-By-Step Approach to Answering Paragraph Order Questions Sentence order questions are much more common, but you may encounter a paragraph order question on the SAT. You’ll go through a similar process to determine where a paragraph best fits in the passage. Take a look at this paragraph order question: #1: Determine What the Question Is Asking The question is straightforward. Where should paragraph 2 be placed to make the passage most logical? Also pay attention to the wording in the answer choices. We want to select which paragraph to place paragraph 2 AFTER. #2: Determine the Main Idea of the Paragraph Knowing the main idea of the paragraph will help you decide where the paragraph should fit in the passage. Let’s take a look at the paragraph in this question: Often, the main idea of the paragraph can be found in the first or second sentences. This paragraph is discussing the details of an extravagantly decorated living room from the era of French king Louis XV. In a passage, each paragraph should connect to the next; therefore, the main idea of one paragraph should logically connect to the main idea of the paragraph that follows. #3: Go Through the Answer Choices Use the main ideas of the other paragraphs and the general structure of the passage to determine if it would be logical to place paragraph 2 after a certain paragraph. Here are the main ideas of the paragraphs in the answer choices: A. Paragraph 1 is about the narrator’s favorite exhibit at the Art Institute of Chicago, which was one of its tiniest: the Thorne Miniature Rooms. B.Paragraph 3 provides a description of the exhibit, which features miniature rooms 1/12 their actual sizes. The rooms are from different regions and eras, from the 13th to the 20th centuries. C. Paragraph 4 opens by stating that the plainer rooms are not as well-furnished, and then describes one of these rooms. D. Paragraph 5 describes a couple of examples of the level of the detail of the furniture in these miniature rooms. It closes with a concluding statement that the narrator isn’t surprised by the level of detail given the exquisite craftsmanship he’s seen in this exhibit. #4: Eliminate Wrong Choices Remember that each paragraph should logically transition to the next paragraph. The original placement of paragraph 2 doesn’t make the most sense logically because it transitions from talking about ornately decorated rooms to a general overview of the exhibit in paragraph 3 to discussing the plainer rooms in paragraph 4. It makes more sense to have the paragraph about the ornate rooms right before the paragraph about the plainer rooms. Those two paragraphs are more logically connected. Therefore, we can get rid of answer choice A. Also, it wouldn’t make much sense to have paragraph 2 after paragraph 4, especially because there is no logical transition between paragraphs 3 and 4. Furthermore, paragraph 5 is the only paragraph that works as a conclusion and sums up the narrator’s fascination with the exhibit. It wouldn’t make sense to have a paragraph after that focusing on the details of a salon from the era of King Louis XV. We can get rid of choices A, C, and D. #5: Skim the Passage With the Answer Choice You Selected The right choice should logically follow the paragraph before and connect to the paragraph after. We’re left with answer choice B: paragraph 2 should be placed after paragraph 3. Paragraph 3 ends by stating that there are rooms from various eras; that logically transitions to the description of the ornate room from the era of King Louis XV. Also, paragraph 4 describes the plainer rooms; that paragraph logically follows the description of ornate rooms. The correct answer is B. 5 General Tips for Organization Questions Here are some important tips to follow for all organization questions. Read the Question and Answer Choices Carefully Make sure you know what the question is asking. Determine if it’s a sentence order or paragraph order question. Figure out what you should be looking for before you attempt to answer the question. Review All ofthe Answer Choices For organization questions, you need to look at the various options you’re given for where to place a sentence or paragraph. Try the various options to determine if all of the sentences or paragraphs would be logically connected. For paragraph order questions, identify the main ideas of the paragraphs. Eliminate Wrong Choices If an answer choice results in sentences or paragraphs that aren’t logically connected, eliminate that answer choice as an option. Wrong answer choices in sentence order questions will result in a paragraph that is confusing or doesn’t make logical sense. Wrong answer choices in paragraph order questions result in a passage in which the main idea of a paragraph doesn’t logically connect to surrounding paragraphs. Getting rid of obviously wrong answers will make your task of selecting the right answer easier. Make Sure That the Answer Choice You Pick Logically Follows What Comes Before and Connects to What Follows For all sentence and paragraph order questions, the correct answer has to make the most logical sense. Check the surrounding sentences or paragraphs to determine that everything is logical and coherent. Use Chronological Order for Help Sometimes, relying on chronological order can help you with organization questions. The first paragraph may describe an event from the beginning, and each following paragraph will describe the next thing that occurred. By paying attention to the sequence of events, you can organize the paragraphs correctly. Similarly, within a paragraph, identifying the order of events can help you organize the sentences. For example, you can't dry off before you get wet. If a sentence about drying off comes before a sentence about getting wet, you'll likely have to change the order of the sentences. What's Next? Organization questions are new to the SAT Writing section. Find out how else SAT Writing has changed. Transition questions are the most common on SAT Writing. Learn how to tackle these questions and improve your score. Finally, make sure you know the most important grammar rules for SAT Writing. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Death and Hamlet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Death and Hamlet - Essay Example The leading hero of the play Prince Hamlet is equally famous for his influential dialogues and impressive performance. He is undeniably one of the most interesting dramatic characters ever created by Shakespeare or any other dramatist. His character is very deep and has a lot of intensity which explains why many dimensions of his personality have been frenetically analyzed by critics to date. An in-depth analysis of Hamlet’s character speaks of the fact that he is a tough man who is not really afraid of the horrors of death. Hamlet in association with the theme of death forms a very interesting subject to be analyzed because it has a lot of intensity to it. Scrutinizing this character in reference to death can unravel many important aspects of the story also. The purpose of this essay is also to explore Hamlet’s relationship with and attitudes towards death throughout the play. Death is a highly pronounced theme of this Shakespearean tragedy and it is quite interesting how it influences Hamlet from the very start of the play. Hamlet’s relationship with death is described as very extraordinary by Bloom (400) who suggests that as soon as the news of his father’s death reaches Hamlet, he becomes literally obsessed with the idea of death. This obsession is evident in the firm belief he develops in his father’s ghost right from the start which is revealed to him by his friend Horatio. Before killing Claudius, he is passionate about finding about the reality of ghosts to know if they really live in the world after death of a person or not. He analyzes the idea of death from many perspectives which shows how weirdly fascinated he becomes with it after his father’s murder. The news of his father’s tragic demise totally transforms Hamlet as a person and instead of focusing on other things, he develops a fascination for death. When he considers the idea of ghosts and explores it, he analyzes death from a spiritual perspect ive. He is determined to find answers to his questions and death seems to be the absolute answer. He also sees death as a solution to his emotional and psychological problems. It is not just death of other characters like Claudius but his own death also which compels Hamlet to think long and hard. Several times he contemplates the idea of suicide to get free from the pressures of the real world which weigh down on him in a very tragic manner. He gives suicide a serious through for the first time when he says, â€Å"O that this too too solid flesh would melt, / Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew!† (I.ii.129-30). This is a very important dialogue because here Hamlet expresses his desire for death. He wishes his flesh would just melt and transform into dew after thawing itself because he does not want to live and is intrigued what will happen after death like if he will transform into a ghost and reunite with his father’s ghost. Then when he says, â€Å"Or that the Ever lasting had not fix’d / His canon ’gainst self-slaughter! O God! O God!† (I.ii.131-32), he desperately wishes God had not called self-slaughter (suicide) a sin. Actually, the notion of suicide also does not sit well with Hamlet’s religious views. Despite his vengeance and longing for death, Hamlet is a good Christian and fears that suicide will subject him to eternal suffering in hell. He admits that suicide is not morally right, but still longs for it. This leads him to a catch-22 situation and extreme dissonance envelops him consequently. In a state of acute distress, he concludes that no one will wish to continue living if one is not afraid of what awaits after death. But, he fears the promise of eternal punishment in hell for people who commit suicide and it is this fear, not of death but of what comes after, which interferes

Monday, February 3, 2020

Accounting Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Accounting Report - Essay Example diversity, because of the fact that it is one of the few sectors which have remained resilient during financial downturns and because it plays a vital role in the communities for the provision of employment opportunities and as a result acts as a driving force necessary for social cohesion. Three companies are selected for the analyses which are J D Sport Fashion Plc., Sports Direct International Plc. and Next Plc. These companies are selected because they are three renowned players in this specific segment. J D Sports Fashion Plc. is a leading retail company based in England in the segment of sport retail. Next Plc. is a British clothing, home products and footwear retail company. It is the largest retailer of clothes in the United Kingdom as measured by sales. The company has more than 700 stores across the UK and 200 across other geographical locations in Asia. The stocks of the company are listed in the London Stock Exchange. Sports Direct International Plc. is also a giant sports retail company in the United Kingdom. It is a multinational retailer with over 500 stores across the globe. All the three companies also have their respective electronic commerce stores. The general information of the three companies is summarized in Table 1. This research is aimed at answering the question as to what is the situation of the external and internal retail industry of the United Kingdom. The research question is to be answered by considering three main retail companies operating in the country which are J D Sport Fashion PLC, Sports Direct International PLC and Next Plc. The aim of the research is to provide an analysis of the retail industry through the consideration of the various influential factors that are affecting the industry. This is done by using different management and analysis tools like the Porters five forces model, PEST analysis, Critical Success Factor (CSF) evaluation and financial analysis including financial and non financial ration

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Impact of Non-Financial Resources

Impact of Non-Financial Resources TASK 1. Physical resources are the tangible resources used in a certain company or an organization. These resources makes their work processes more appealing and efficient. One the other hand, technological resources are the resources in which an organization or company uses to promote and increase efficiency in the company, sometimes these technological resources can also be used for security purposes. The following are the physical and technological resources needed in Mohammed’s company dealing with advertising and publishing:- The physical resources needed are: a building or a rented shop. The location of this building has to be in an area where it is possible for people to notice the company. The best area is in Qurm since there are a lot of residential areas, schools and other companies around that area. It is a busy area so if the company is located that area, it has a high possibility of being known all over Muscat and in couple of years it will expand to all around Oman if the business goes as planned. He should rent a shop for a while until the business goes well and in the meantime he should continue finding another area of which he should have his own building and not rent for his whole life since his business won’t be small for life but expansion of his company is his mission in life. Furniture. Furniture such as office tables and chairs are essential in a company. These furniture are the ones that provide appealing environment for a customer when entering the office. For instance, a customer gets in the office and already explained his/her problems to the receptionist and was told to wait, he/she would definitely expect to see a sofa or a chair in which he/she can sit as he/she was told to wait. The work environment also needs these furniture since a computer cannot just stay on the floor and expect a customer to deal with that company after seeing that. Appearance of the work area by the use of furniture is an essential thing to consider when starting up a new business. Fahmy Furniture LLC is the best place to get these furniture from since they have good quality furniture with reasonable prices. Filing system is also needed in certain situations so, shelves are also appropriate and can be also found in this company. Toilet equipments. These are essential because every human has to visit the toilet eventually at any time. These can be kept in both male and female sections of the toilet since the toilet cannot be bisexual and used by both genders. These can be bought from any local dealers who have provide with good quality and affordable prices. Toilet equipments meaning sinks and the actual toilet in which a person uses for specific reasons and the sink to wash hands after the usage of the toilet since it is healthy to do so. Safety equipments. In any company, there always have to be safety precautions in case of any emergency occurs. Safety equipments such as fire extinguishers should be installed around the office in case of any fire outbreak that might happen. These fire extinguishers have to be the ones that can switch off fire of any class. In publishing, papers are needed so as to portray all the work that a person kept effort in when wanting to advertise something that a person hired the company for. These papers are special since publishing a pamphlet or brochure isn’t done by normal A4 papers but with a required paper material needed for the process to take place. These papers can be bought online or imported from out of Oman and reach the office for the publication to take place. The company should have a trademark and a copyright protection that will avoid other people to use the same mark as their own. According to Wikipedia, â€Å"Trademark law is designed to fulfill the public policy objective of consumer protection, by preventing the public from being misled as to the origin or quality of a product or service.† The Omani Copyrights laws will actually help in this kind of situation since whenever someone copyrights the company’s work, the company will always be protected by having the law on their side. Technological resources needed include communication devices such as telephones. These devices are important in a way that the company is able to communicate with their clients in the progress of their work. Also communication is available to those people who are interested in knowing more about the company and wanting to know where it is located and making appointments. A contract with Oman Mobile will be suitable since they provide better landline services than any other networks in Oman. Computers. Computers are needed for the operational activities of the company in the process of advertising and publishing what a client hired them for. These computers are installed with a publishing software which it makes it easier for the designer to complete his/her work in a short while. Bear, J.H (n.d), â€Å"Desktop publishing software allows the user to rearrange text and graphics on screen, change typefaces as easily as changing shoes, and resize graphics on the fly, before finally committing a design to paper.† Computers are used when designing features that can be kept in brochures and pamphlets. Websites. A website is there to provide awareness of the company’s information. Since the technology is developing and most people are always surfing the internets, it is easier for them to know about the company online than going to them and ask them about their information. According to Wikipedia, â€Å"Electronic publishing has become common in scientific publishing where it has been argued that peer-reviewed scientific journals are in the process of being replaced by electronic publishing. It is also becoming common to distribute books, magazines, and newspapers to consumers through tablet reading devices, a market that is growing by millions each year,[1] generated by online vendors such as Apples iTunes bookstore, Amazons bookstore for Kindle, and books in the Google Play Bookstore.† Instagram accounts can be useful sometimes since it’s a new application and most people have it, they will be able to see the quality of publications and the previous contracts they had. Publication machines such as printers. These printers are used in the publication processes that requires brochures to be spread for the knowledge of what the client asked the company to advertise about. These publications act as an advertising tool and also advertising can be done through websites but all of these are choices done by the client himself/herself. Smoke detectors. In case of fire outbreak and nobody notices, the smoke detectors will detect the smoke since fire produces it. These smoke detectors will be installed with a water system which will automatically activate when there is fire in a certain area and an alarm will go on to alert the employees about it so they can put it off as soon as possible so as to avoid destruction of properties in the office. Projectors are needed so as to present what will be done to the clients. This presentation is to confirm what the company is doing and the client to say if it is okay or something else should be done with the publications and the advertising as per the contract agreement. Security cameras. These are to be installed so as to know every single person who came in the office and went out, and whenever something bad goes wrong such as theft, the cameras will definitely show you who did it since they record everything that’s happening in the office. In conclusion, the company will work according to efficiently since it has all the technological and physical resources. This will also depend on the human resources present in the company for the operations to work as planned. Without human resources, there won’t be a company since they are the ones responsible in operating all physical and technological resources. TASK 2. Human resource management is the process of hiring people who are qualified for a specific job. In order for Mohammed to manage the human resources, he should put job vacancies available for people to apply for. He can advertise them through newspapers, magazines or websites. Job descriptions and personal specifications are provided in these advertisements together with a job application form details on where to find them if they are not attached in the advertisement. After they apply, they are to go to the company for a job interview and go through a specific course if necessary. The person has to have all the necessary skills both personal and employability so as to get the job. If he/she passes the course, it is when he/she sits to discuss about the salary and starts to work after given a specific date to begin. Mohammed should know how to motivate his employees in remaining in the company for a long period of time. This process is called retention.Business Burrito (n.d), â€Å"When people arent motivated, they become less productive, less creative, less of an asset to your company.† He should have a promotion system by which an employee earns it for his/her hard work to the company. This will motivate other employees to work harder providing more work force to the company and the company to be known more by others and at the end they get their rewards on their hard work. Training should be provided to the employees through taking them to courses concerning a certain task since technology changes after a period of time. These courses can either be indoor or outdoor. Indoor meaning inside the country and city and outdoor meaning in a different country. Training Today (n.d),â€Å"Training is crucial because it: Educates workers about the effective use of technology, Ensures competitive edge in the market, Promotes safety and health among employees, Creates opportunities for career development and personal growth, an important factor in retaining workers Helps employers comply with laws and regulations, and Improves productivity and profitability† Through having this new knowledge on a certain job, it is easier for the company to attract more customers since the competitors won’t have the knowledge but when they know that the company has it and it is useful, they would go obtain the knowledge so as for the competition to be stable. Security guards are there to protect theft from happening. Competitors might act in unethical manner and hire people to steal things from the company and eventually getting them. Itcan happen when clients’ competitors would want to destroy the publications and eventually break in the company so as to get them. These guards are there to protect anything from happening to the company at any time. Physical resources are there to provide a good and appealing appearance to the society. These resources are noticed by people and they are satisfied by what they see so they agree to deal with the company. These people will spread the word to others and fortunately the company will gain more clients than before. The physical resources such as computers and printers makes work much easier and effective because they are essential in this kind of business that using free hands in drawing on papers and use them as publications to advertise to other people. This won’t generate a lot of clients because they would think that the company is too old fashioned and cannot afford the modern technology and has no knowledge of it. Technological resources improve the performance of a company in such a way that protection is provided to them through the security cameras and smoke detectors. This makes the work conditions safe for the employees to do their jobs without any threats coming between them. Having publication machinery makes it possible for work to be done in a certain period of time without asking other people to do it for you and pay them at the end. The machines help in production of the publication in a short period of time and get on with the next employee’s agreement. Good quality publications that are advertised can lead to the attraction of more customers into the company. Projectors will provide update to the clients through the presentation that is prepared by the company on what the company is getting at in the process of publication. The communication devices will make it possible for communications between the company and the customers when it comes to appointments and informing them on where the process of publishing and advertising has reached. This makes the customers to have trust which is a good thing and get to spread the word to others. In conclusion, all these human, physical and technological resources are very important things in a company. They cannot work without each other so without one, the other won’t work as effective as it used to be and the company won’t be successful as it hoped to be. TASK 3. It is true that managing resources and controlling budgets costs can improve the performance of the business. This happens when controlling a budget costs can also control the resources in a company which are all human, physical and technological resources. Consider human resources, instead of having more employees a company can only have two employees. Since Mohammed is the owner of the company, he has to recruit two employees who are able to do all the work needed in advertising and publications. Since the technology is growing, the only thing needed to know is how to design and put it out online for people to see it. They should have skills like sales and computer designs in conducting this kind of business. Courses are to be given to them if they lack one of these skills to reduce the cost of more employees and save money in paying more instead you just pay the two employees who keep working hand in hand helping each other. Online meaning in websites and mostly on Instagram since most people nowadays use most their time surfing the internet for information and some just for their own goods. When they see the advertisement, they wouldn’t mind looking at it and get a clear image of what the advertisement is about and maybe get interested in knowing more about it. In physical resources, the production of pamphlets and brochures should be stopped. The company has to stop the ordering of these papers used in the production process since they won’t be needed anymore. This will save more money because the cost of ordering these papers abroad includes the cost of shipping them and their prices are not cheap. Publication machinery won’t be of use since the production of brochures, flyers and pamphlets will be stopped. This is because due to the technology upraise, people read news and information online and not through papers as how it was few years back. In couple of years there will be no papers publications in advertising world so it’s better that the company starts that now. This will reduce the cost of buying machines and also the repairing and servicing of the machinery after a certain period of time. Technological resources are very hard to manage and control since they change every after a while and it is difficult to cope with it. Barton, R (2013), â€Å"Technology is innovating and expanding at an exponential rate. It’s difficult to grasp how dramatic is the growth of 2 x 2 x 2 x 2†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The only way that it’s possible to manage and control is by allowing the employees to get courses of these new technology in the world and eventually apply them in the operations of a company in advertising. Controlling resources will lead to managing the budget cost since he won’t paying more employees, not buying more machinery that would need services after a period of time and it also costs money. This money that will be saved can be invested in more of the company’s activities than using it in areas that might be of waste. These activities include expansion of the office to a better location or bigger office and getting known all around a targeted area. According to the consumption and saving of money during controlling and managing both resources and budget costs, it is the right way to conduct business since it makes the company get more than what it uses. Mohammed should consider doing this if he doesn’t want to have risks in his business operations since this will make him use less money and gain more than he expects. REFERENCES. Barton, R (2013). Technology’s Explosion: The Exponential Growth Rate. Retrieved on November 25, 2014. Retrieved from Bear, J.H (n.d). Why is Desktop Publishing Important? Retrieved on November 23, 2014. Retrieved from Business Burrito (n.d). Employee Motivation. Why Motivating Your Employees is Important. Retrieved on November 24, 2014. Retrieved from Training Today (n.d). Employee Training. Retrieved on November 24, 2014. Retrieved from Wikipedia (n.d). Electronic Publishing. Overview. Retrieved on November 24, 2014. Retrieved from Wikipedia (n.d). Trademark. Public Policy. Retrieved on November 23, 2014. Retrieved from

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Define Communism

Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is the same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthy†s Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the opposite, rather it is to inform the reader of communism†s migration through time and hopefully assist the regression of such fear. The ideology of communism came out of the minds of two men, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Sowell, 11). Since Marx is the most widely known influence, he will be the one most referred to. It was Marx†s belief that private property was the cause of poverty and degradation of the proletariat. Therefore, he came to settle on the idea that no one person should have control over production of goods, ownership of land, and management of funds. In that same token then, no one class should be allowed to have control over these things. He went on to comment that the exploitation of the working class must come to an end. That end would be achieved through revolution. Once this was achieved, everybody would work according to their abilities and then be paid accordingly (Marx 586-617). Soon after, however, technical innovations would create such abundance of goods that â€Å"everyone works according to his abilities and receives according to his needs. † Soon thereafter, money would ! have no place in society. People would be able to take what they want and in turn would be lacking nothing. Marx also believed that the pleasure of seeing the fruits of labor would be enough to cause man to work (Rieber, 56-62). Countries and people were soon to catch on to this ideology. The two most well know places were Russia and China. Of the two, Russia was the first to adopt the communist beliefs. Russia already had a long history of peasant insurrections. Most of these uprisings though, were leaderless and highly unorganized. The motives of the rebels were vague and often confused. By the time the government made some improvements to help the peasants, it was too late. In 1917, due to the breakdown of the administration and military order, the peasants moved to carry out their own revolution. They tore down any form of legal and territorial authority and distributed the land in a rough but equal fashion. During this time, a man by the name of Georgi V. Plekanhov had secretly come into Russia bringing Karl Marx†s books. Once there, these books influenced young students who saw the revolution dependent on the proletariat, not the peasant class. One of the people influenced by Plekanhov was a man going by the name of Nikolai Lenin. His revolutionary ardor was strong and he went on to creat a group called the Bolsheviks and they are the ones who would create the revolution needed to change the system. It began on March 6, 1917 when bread riots erupted in Petrograd, Russia and did not end until the United Soviet Socialist Republic was organized on December 30, 1922. On January 21, 1924, Lenin died and this complicated matters since two people were interested in Lenin†s position. A power struggle ensued between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky (Salisbury, xi). Stalin became the Bolshevik party general secretary in 1922, which was one step closer to being the next Lenin. In 1925, Stalin offered a more attractive solution to the Russian people than Trotsky (Rieber, 73-74). Thus in 1927, Stalin scored the first major victory for himself when the Fifteenth All-Union Congress of the Communist Party denounced all deviations of the Stalinist line. Trotsky and any ally of his were banished to the Russian provinces. Here Stalin†s ruthless nature began to show. He completely expelled Trotsky from the Soviet Union and finally his fear of Trotsky-esque forced him to assassinate Le! on Trotsky in 1940 (Kaiser, 246). However, even after Trotsky was assassinated Stalin†s fears were never quite dissipated. Stalin went on to establish a dictatorship, crushing any opposing voices within his party and his country. He would not stop there though, still being enough of a Marxist, he wanted to see the ultimate goal become a reality. He wanted to see a world wide socialist revolution. He and many other Soviet leaders held the furtherance of world revolution above the preservation of the dictatorship. It remained an important goal through the leadership of Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, and Chernenko. However, this came to the head during the leadership of Gorbachev. Gorbachev had a country that was falling apart dumped into his lap. Dissension was widespread and in an effort to bring the country back to it†s former glory, Gorbachev implemented a program known as Perestroika, or reconstructuring. Its aim was to make good on the promises of socialism or else it would sink to the status of a third world country. One part of Perestroika that was particularly odd was called Glasnost. The purpose of Glasnost was to hear constructive criticism in order to possibly try to implement the ideas in an effort to help the country out of their difficulties. This was much different from Stalin†s views. When western criticism said that Perestroika was slowing down, Glasnost went ahead at full speed, revealing not only the crimes of the Stalin era, but also the horrifying dimensions of the contemporary crisis. In foreign affairs, not only was there great progress on arms control, but also Soviet troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan. Most spectacular of all, in 1989, Gorbachev allowed Soviet control over Eastern Europe to evaporate, as communism was overthrown and independent governments were established in one satellite country after another. In 1991, Gorbachev changed course as he came to realize that his only chance to preserve the union was to work with the leaders of the republics rather than against them. For many loyal members of the party and the security forces, as well as managers of industry and collective farms, the country as they had known it was on the brink of falling apart. The last stand of the old guard was an attempted coup in August 1991. It was easy for the plotters to take over the central government, but they found it impossible to topple Boris Yeltsin and the Russian Federation government. The coup collapsed within days, and the Communist party was outlawed. The fate of the August showed how little vitality was left in the Soviet Union†s central government, and it was not long before appropriate conclusions were drawn. In another quieter coup in December, the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus declared that a Commonwealth of Independent States would replace the Union of Soviet So! cialist Republics. The declaration only ratified the reality of republican independence. Gorbachev bowed to the inevitable and resigned at the end of the year. The seventy-four year history of the Soviet Union had come to an end (Grolier). After Russia, China was the next major country to adapt to the communist system of beliefs. It was on October 1, 1949 that Mao Tsetung pronounced the establishment of the new Chinese Communist state: the People†s Republic of China. It was for this reason that Mao and over ten thousand people set off on what was to be called the Long March. They began in the Jiangxi province where their ranks rapidly grew and became known as the Fourth Red Army. It was comprised of peasants and soldiers who were in favor of a communist regime or were in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek†s nationalist views. Mao†s army never numbered more than 85,000 peasants, while Chiang†s forces, the Kuomintang, numbered at least 200,000 well-equipped troops (Frankenstein 58-64). The odds were definitely against Mao. It was for this reason that he favored guerrilla warfare. Mao described these tactics in his Little Red Book: When the enemy advanced, we retreat. Our weapons are supplied to us by the enemy. In 1934, Chiang encircled the Jiangxi province in which Mao was camped and thus it was decided within his camp that they must break through Chiang†s blockade lines. The 85,000 plus another 15,000 peasants poured through the breach that had been made. Within forty-eight hours, most of the people had broken through the lines. No one really knew what ahead, however, over six thousand miles, icy rivers, swampy marshes, and Kuomintang forces would leave only a handful alive at the end (Frankenstein 116-124). The Long March had begun. It would finally end in 1949, the same time the People†s Republic of China was formed. Mao had come out on top through extraordinary means. However, the civil war was not quite over. While living in Taiwan, Chiang was still getting backing from the United States of America and again took the title of President in 1950. Mao recognized, however, that he would need to set up a government immediately in order to support the close to one billion people living in China. He then turned to the Soviet Union for financial assistance. Mao went on to create the Great Cultural Revolution: an effort to get China up to the status of a major world power. This was a major motivating force for Mao until his death in 1976 (Frankenstein, 161-165). China and the communist party were without an outstanding leader for several years following Mao Tsetung†s death. Finally, Deng Xiaoping eventually emerged as the paramount leader they were looking for in 1978. He promptly launched his economic reform plan. Under his leadership, China tried moving their economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more produ! ctive and flexible economy with market elements, all within the framework of Communist control. The result has been a strong surge in production with industry posting some major gains. Deng†s reforms have improved the livelihoods of many Chinese living in urban areas. There is no doubt that Deng had lead China through greatest period of modernization and foreign contact. One of the saddest days in Chinese history was the death of Deng Xiaoping on February 19, 1997. While he had not been active for some time and had not appeared in public for three years prior to his death, the death of senior leaders had always had an unsettling impact on Chinese politics (CNN). On the other hand, Deng had retired in 1989 and he had placed Jiang Zemin in the powerful post of chairman of the Central Military Commission. In 1993, Jiang was named president of China. Jiang†s policy, like that of his mentor, was to instill market reforms while still keeping the country politically and socially conservative (CNN). This was going to be difficult though with Hong Kong having been returned to China on June 1, 1997. President Jiang Zemin himself will preside as the motherland reclaims a piece of itself, instantly replacing the councils and crown symbols of Britain rule with the new authority of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. If only it were that simple. The people of Hong Kong embrace neither of these extremes. They share pride in the reunification of China, but they harbor some misgivings about their new landlords, however, they are ready to give the new system a chance. Unfortunately the west is casting a skeptical eye. If Beijing is ready to be welcomed into the community of nations with the stature its size and wealth ought to command, China will have to convince the west that it is ready and able to live by the international community†s rules (McGeary, 186-192). With the Soviet Union no longer in existence, the international community is turning their attention on to the last major communist nation that has influence. China will have to tread lightly, especially now with the return of a valuable port that was the refuge for millions of democratic citizens. China has promised a â€Å"one country, two systems† policy, but that is only drawing more criticism. Communism can no longer grow, it can only mature. However, this maturing process is turning it into more of a capitalist country.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Homeless o Harvard

Homeless to Harvard This movie is about a little girl,Liz Murray who transformed her life. She became homeless by the times she was 1 5. Her parents were both drug-addicted,and her mother was also an alcoholic. But she became the top of her school and finally got in to Harvard,one of the greatest universities in the world. As for me,my family is a typical middle-class family I have every reason to fight ,to be someone great,but yet I have every reason to not to I can still live comfortable anyway .But everyday I aka up in the morning and I feel like I am struggling in a way that not everybody can see. I feel like I have so many visions for my future and I want to accomplish them so badly,but there's always a noise in my head that keeps telling me that the things I need to do can wait till later. Everyone knows that we can't keep telling ourselves later,but we Just kept doing it. I had many great experiences,l know what it feels like being far beyond excellent ,and being top of the cl ass.I know how It feels of trying my aridest,but in the same time I know how it feels being like a loser,l know how it feels like,when everyone In the room is Judging you. With all the experiences I had,there are far more than Just two sides of me what are fighting. I can't divide myself Into simply two sides,the good side of me and the bad side of me. The choices I make are not always Just alternative. After seeing this movie I know that I can't keep talking to myself about past and spend all my days regretting. I have myself and I have to look forward. ‘ can't keep pushing away taking, stepping Into my life In the biggest sense.People say that look Into your failure so that the next time you won't do the same,but we can't always look for blames and keep asking ourselves why didn't It work out. We should step forward and move on,tell ourselves that nothing happened In the past counts. We should ask ourselves what next and be up for It,we are only responsible for what will hap pen and what Is happening. I realized that I don't have to be stuck In this situation I'm In. I am going to figure out what's holding me back,and unblock let. That's what this movie taught me, my life Isn't later. It Is now.